Imaging growing bone is challenging, as bone structure, shape and size changes continuously until skeletal maturity. The numerous normal variants of growth which may mimic pathology have been accurately described radiographically, but little is known on the appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), for example. Thus, techniques and protocols designed for adults should not be applied in children without being properly audited and adjusted. As paediatric radiologists we have important work to do! From 2020 the taskforce also includes the topic Skeletal Dysplasia. 

The main goal of the Musculoskeletal Taskforce is:

  • to present recommendations on ”best practice” for paediatric MSK imaging, based on own research and on the available literature

Karen Rosendahl, Tromsø/NO
Paolo Toma, Rome/IT

Ignasi Barber, Barcelona/ES
Lil-Sofie Ording Müller, Oslo/NO
Paul Humphries, London/UK
Laura Tanturri De Horatio, Rome/IT
Pier Luigi Di Paolo, Rome/IT
Paolo Simoni, Brussels/BE
Susan Shelmerdine, London/UK
Amaka Offiah, Sheffield/UK
Thekla von Kalle, Stuttgart/DE
Sandra Diaz, Lund/SE
Ola Kvist, Stockholm/SE
Marina Vakaki, Athens/GR
Alessandra Bartoloni, Rome/IT
Lene Bjerke Laborie, Bergen/NO
Céline Habre, Geneva/CH
Amira Dhouib Chargui, Geneva/CH
Ilze Apine, Riga/LV
Natalija Merkla, Riga/LV
Mikhael Sebaaly, Iowa/US
Vasiliki Dermentzoglou, Athens/GR
Domen Plut, Ljubljana/SI
Janina Patsch, Vienna/AT
Jeannette Kraft, Leeds/UK
Flavia Menegotto, Bristol/UK

Associated members
Robert Hemke, Amsterdam/NL
Derk Avenarius, Tromsø/NO
Takashi Shawn Sato, Iowa/US

If you would like to become a member of the Musculoskeletal Taskforce, please send your CV to


1) Ultrasound screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Literature update (led by Amaka Offiah / Lene Laborie).
2) Establish ultrasound techniques for paediatric MSK imaging (led by Céline Habre)
3) Establish normal references for WB-MRI of the paediatric skeleton (led by Lil-Sofie Ording Müller / Derk Avenarius).
4) Multicenter project on chronic non-bacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) (led by Laura Tanturri De Horatio / Paula D’Angelo)
5) Establish normal references for ankle ultrasound (led by Marina Vakaki)
6) Survey on skeletal burden score in fibrous dysplasia (led by Amaka Offiah)
7) Skeletal dysplasias. Establish a research database (led by Amaka Offiah).

Skeletal maturation

  1. Ording Müller LS, Offiah A, Adamsbaum C, Barber I, Di Paolo PL, Humphries P, Shelmerdine S, Tanturri De Horatio L, Toma P, Treguier C, Rosendahl K. Bone age for chronological age determination – statement of the European Society of Paediatric Radiology musculoskeletal task force group. Pediatr Radiol. 2019 Jun;49(7):979-982. doi: 10.1007/s00247-019-04379-4. Epub 2019 Mar 26. PMID: 30911781.

Ultrasound screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH)

  1. Olsen SF, Blom HC, Rosendahl K. Introducing universal ultrasound screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip doubled the treatment rate. Acta Paediatr. 2017 Sep 4.
  2. Diederichs C, Heath A, Hareendranathan AR, Zonoobi D, Kuntze G, Dulai S, Mabee MG, Ronsky JL, Jaremko JL. Cross-Modality Validation of Acetabular Surface Models Using 3-D Ultrasound Versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Normal and Dysplastic Infant Hips. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2016 Sep;42(9):2308-14.
  3. Selective ultrasound screening for developmental hip dysplasia: effect on management and late detected cases. A prospective survey during 1991-2006. Laborie LB, Markestad TJ, Davidsen H, Brurås KR, Aukland SM, Bjørlykke JA, Reigstad H, Indrekvam K, Lehmann TG, Engesæter IO, Engesæter LB, Rosendahl K. Pediatr Radiol. Pediatr Radiol. 2014 Apr;44(4):410-24.
  4. Laborie LB, Engesæter IØ, Lehmann TG, Eastwood DM, Engesæter LB, Rosendahl K. Screening Strategies for Hip Dysplasia: Long-term Outcome of a Randomized Controlled Trial. 2013 Sep;132(3):492-501
  5. Tréguier C, Chapuis M, Branger B, Bruneau B, Grellier A, Chouklati K, Proisy M, Darnault P, Violas P, Pladys P, Gandon Y. Pubo-femoral distance: an easy sonographic screening test to avoid late diagnosis of DDH. Eur Radiol. 2013 Mar;23(3):836-44.
  6. Brurås KR, Aukland SM, Markestad T, Sera F, Dezateux C, Rosendahl K. Newborns With Sonographically Dysplastic and Potentially Unstable Hips: 6-Year Follow-up of an RCT. Pediatrics 2011 February 14.
  7. Frederik J. A. Beek, Rutger-Jan Nievelstein, Hans E. Pruijs, Pim A. de Jong, Ralph J. B. Sakkers. Transinguinal sonographic determination of the position of the femoral head after reposition and follow-up in a spica cast. Pediatr Radiol (2010) 40:1794–1799.
  8. Rosendahl K, Dezateux C, Fosse K, Aukland SM, Aase H, Reigstad H, Moster D, Lie RT, AlsakerT, Markestad T. Immediate Treatment Versus Sonographic Surveillance for Mild Hip Dysplasia in Newborns. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125(1):e9-1
  9. Dezateux C, Rosendahl K. Developmental dysplasia of the hip . Lancet. 2007 May 5;369(9572):1541-52
  10. Rosendahl K, Toma P. Ultrasound in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip. The European approach. Methods, accuracy and clinical validity. Eur Radiol. 2007 Aug;17(8):1960-7
  11. Florens Q. M. P. van Douveren, Hans E. H. Pruijs, Ralph J. B. Sakkers, Rutger A. J. Nievelstein, Frederik J. A. Beek. Ultrasound in the management of the position of the femoral head during treatment in a spica cast after reduction of hip dislocation in developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2003;85-B:117-20.

Recommendations on DDH, and ongoing discussions

  1. Recommendations on hip screening (issued post-IPR May 2011)
  2. Riccabona M, Schweintzger G, Grill F, Graf R. Screening for DDH – clinically or sonographically? Comments to the current discussion and proposals. Pediatr Radiol. 2013 Mar;43(5):637-40
  3. Rosendahl K, Toma P. Reply to Riccabona et al. Regarding screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Pediatr Radiol. 2013 Mar;43(5):641-2.

Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) – Research performed by group-members from 2012 onwards

  1. Angenete OW, Augdal TA, Rygg M, Rosendahl K .MRI in the Assessment of TMJ-Arthritis in Children with JIA; Repeatability of a Newly Devised Scoring System. Acad Radiol. 2021 Nov 18.
  2. Barendregt AM, van Gulik EC, Groot PFC, Dolman KM, van den Berg JM, Nassar-Sheikh Rashid A, Schonenberg-Meinema D, Lavini C, Rosendahl K, Hemke R, Kuijpers TW, Maas M, Nusman CM. Prolonged time between intravenous contrast administration and image acquisition results in increased synovial thickness at magnetic resonance imaging in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Pediatr Radiol. 2019 May; 49(5): 638-645.
  3. van Dijkhuizen EHP, Vanoni F, Magnano GM, Magnaguagno F, Rosendahl K, van Rossum MA, Martini A, Malattia C; the OMERACT Working Group MRI in JIA. Effect of the Inclusion of the Metacarpophalangeal Joints on the Wrist Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring System in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2018 Nov;45(11):1581-1587
  4. Shelmerdine SC, Di Paolo PL, Rieter JFMM, Malattia C, Tanturri de Horatio L, Rosendahl K. A novel radiographic scoring system for growth abnormalities and structural change in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis of the hip. Pediatr Radiol. 2018 Aug;48(8):1086-1095.
  5. Shelmerdine SC, DiPaolo PL, Tanturri de Horatio L. Lalattia C, Magni-Manzoni S, Rosendahl K. Imaging of the hip in JIA. Pediatr Radiol.2018 Jun;48(6):811-817.
  6. Avenarius DKM, Nusman C, Lalattia C, Horatio LT, Rosendahl K, Maas M, Müller, LSO. Pediatr Radiol 2018. Jun; 48(6):801-810.
  7. Rosendahl K, Bruserud IS, Oehme N, Júlíusson PB, de Horatio LT, Müller LO, Magni-Manzoni S. Normative ultrasound references for the paediatric wrist; dorsal soft tissues. RMD Open. 2018 Mar 10;4(1):e000642.
  8. Avenarius DF, Ording Müller LS, Rosendahl K.Joint Fluid, Bone Marrow Edemalike Changes, and Ganglion Cysts in the Pediatric Wrist: Features That May Mimic Pathologic Abnormalities-Follow-Up of a Healthy Cohort. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2017 Mar 23:1-6.
  9. Nusman CM, Rosendahl K, Maas M. MRI Protocol for the Assessment of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis of the Wrist: Recommendations from the OMERACT MRI in JIA Working Group and Health-e-Child. J Rheumatol. 2016 Jun;43(6):1257-8.
  10. Nusman CM, Ording Muller LS, Hemke R, Doria AS, Avenarius D, Tzaribachev N, Malattia C, van Rossum MA, Maas M, Rosendahl K. Current Status of Efforts on Standardizing Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Report from the OMERACT MRI in JIA Working Group and Health-e-Child. J Rheumatol. 2016 Jan;43(1):239-44.
  11. Rieter JF, de Horatio LT, Nusman CM, Müller LO, Hemke R, Avenarius DF, van Rossum MA, Malattia C, Maas M, Rosendahl K. The many shades of enhancement: timing of post-gadolinium images strongly influences the scoring of juvenile idiopathic arthritis wrist involvement on MRI. Pediatr Radiol. 2016 Jul 12. [Epub ahead of print].
  12. Avenarius DF, Ording Müller LS, Rosendahl K. Erosion or normal variant? 4-year MRI follow-up of the wrists in healthy children. Pediatr Radiol. 2016 Mar;46(3):322-30.
  13. Boavida P, Lambot-Juhan K, Müller LO, Damasio B, de Horatio LT, Malattia C, Owens CM, Rosendahl K.Carpal erosions in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: repeatability of a newly devised MR-scoring system. Pediatr Radiol. 2015 Dec;45(13):1972-80.
  14. Ording Muller LS, Humphries P, Rosendahl K.The joints in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Insights Imaging. 2015 Jun;6(3):275-84.
  15. Nusman CM, Ording Muller LS, Hemke R, Doria AS, Avenarius D, Tzaribachev N, Malattia C, van Rossum MA, Maas M, Rosendahl K. Current Status of Efforts on Standardizing Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Report from the OMERACT MRI in JIA Working Group and Health-e-Child.J Rheumatol. 2015 May 15. pii: jrheum.141276. [Epub ahead of print].
  16. Damasio MB, de Horatio LT, Boavida P, Lambot-Juhan K, Rosendahl K, Tom P, Ording L. Imaging in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): an update with particular emphasis on MRI. Acta Radiol. 2013 Nov;54(9):1015-23.
  17. Ording Muller LS, Boavida P, Avenarius D, Damasio B, Eldevik OP, Malattia C, Lambot-Juhan K, Tanturri L, Owens CM, Rosendahl K. MRI of the wrist in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: erosions or normal variants? A prospective case-control study. Pediatr Radiol. 2013 Jul;43(7):785-95.
  18. Avenarius DM, Ording Müller LS, Eldevik P, Owens CM, Rosendahl K. The paediatric wrist revisited-findings of bony depressions in healthy children on radiographs compared to MRI. Pediatr Radiol. 2012 Jul;42(7):791-8.
  19. Damasio MB, Malattia C, Tanturri de Horatio L, Mattiuz C, Pistorio A, Bracaglia C, Barbuti D, Boavida P, Juhan KL, Ording LS, Rosendahl K, Martini A, Magnano G, Tomà P. MRI of the wrist in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: proposal of a paediatric synovitis score by a consensus of an international working group. Results of a multicentre reliability study. Pediatr Radiol. 2012 Sep;42(9):1047-55.
  20. Tanturri de Horatio L, Damasio MB, Barbuti D, Bracaglia C, Lambot-Juhan K, Boavida P, Ording Müller LS, Malattia C, Ravà L, Rosendahl K, Tomà P. MRI assessment of bone marrow in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: intra- and inter-observer variability. Pediatr Radiol. 2012 Jun;42(6):714-20.
  21. Boavida P. Hargunani R, Owens C, Rosendahl K . Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Radiographic Assessment of Carpal Depressions in Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Normal Variants or Erosions? J Rheumatol. 2012 Mar;39(3):645-50. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Multicenter project on CNO (CRMO).
PIs: Tanturri de Horatio, D’Angelo. Article: Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) – clinical and imaging features.

Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis – clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features. d’Angelo P, de Horatio LT, Toma P, Ording Müller LS, Avenarius D, von Brandis E, Zadig P, Casazza I, Pardeo M, Pires-Marafon D, Capponi M, Insalaco A, Fabrizio B, Rosendahl K. Pediatr Radiol. 2020 Oct 9.

Pia Zadig, Elisabeth von Brandis, Regina Küfner Lein, Karen Rosendahl, Derk Avenarius, Lil-Sofie Ording Müller. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children – how and why? A systematic review. Pediatr Radiol 2021 Jan;51(1):14-24.

ESPR Marseille, June 9th at 13.30-14.30 CET